International Space Station (ISS)
The International Space Station (ISS) is meant to usher in an era of peace and unity among the world's community through scientific efforts and joint projects. The ISS ties together seventeen countries that span the globe in the hope of this very goal. This cooperative scientific project has become the largest and most complex peacetime project to occur for the first time in the history of human civilization. As we reach out for the heavens and fulfill the eagerness to explore vast new wonders and worlds.
Space Station Mission Statitics
ISS Soyuz TMA-07M ISS Soyuz TMA-08M
TMA-07M: December 19, 2012 @ 7:12 A.M. EST
TMA-08M: March 28, 2013 @
SpaceX 2: March 1, 2013 @ 10:10 A.M. EST
TMA-07M: December 21, 2012 @ 09:09 A.M. EST
TMA-08M: December 23, 2011 @ 11:22 A.M. EST
SpaceX 2: March 29, 2013 @ 10:28 P.M. EDT
TMA-07M: May 14, 2013 @ TBD
TMA-08M: September 11, 2013 @ TBD
SpaceX 2: March 26, 2013 @ 12:34 P.M. EDT
TMA-07M: Commander Chris Hadfield (NASA), Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko (RSA), Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn (NASA)
TMA-08M: Flight Engineer Alexander Misurkin (RSA), Flight Engineer Pavel Vinogradov (RSA), Flight Engineer Chris Cassidy (NASA)
SpaceX 2: None
Truss: 109 m (357.5 ft)
Module: 51 m (167.3 ft)
Solar Array: 73 m (239.4 ft)
Total: 370,290 kg (816,349 lbs)
The ISS is almost four times larger than the former Russian Mir space station and about five times larger than the United States Skylab.
The ISS will weigh almost one million pounds (925,627 pounds) when fully constructed, which equates to more than 320 automobiles.
Total: 109 m (357.5 ft) along truss with solar arrays extended.
Spans the length of a football field, including the end zones.
The ISS solar array surface area could cover the United States Senate Chamber three times.
The solar array wingspan is longer than that of a Boeing 777 200/300.
Habitable: 360 cubic meters (12,705 cubic feet).
Pressurized: 837 cubic meters (29,561 cubic feet).
The Pressurized volume will eventually be equal to that of a Boeing 747 (33,023 cubic feet).
|Atmosphere||.3 kPa (14.7 psi) - the equivalent of Earth.|
Cruises around 27,743.8 km/h (17,239.2 MPH).
Orbital period of 91 minutes.
Orbital decay of 2km/month.
Orbital inclination of 51.6419 degrees.
Average power of 84 kilowatts (kw). Which is equal to the average amount of energy that three American homes require.
Inclination of 51.6 degrees to the equator.
Altitude of 336 (Perigee)- 346 (Apogee) km (181 - 189 nautical miles).
Eight miles of wire connects the electrical power system.
The station will incorporate 6 (Destiny, Columbus, Kibo, Poisk, Rassvet, and Nauka) scientific modules, which can conduct a variety of studies.
Crew of up to six people.
The ISS can carry more than 100 telephone-booth sized scientific rack facilities.
The 55-foot robot arm assembly is capable of lifting 220,000 pounds, which is roughly the equivalent to the weight of a Space Shuttle.
American : 31 Space Shuttle Flights
Russian: 2 Proton, 20 Soyuz Crew, 2 Soyuz Assembly, 35 Progress Resupply Flights
European: 1 Automated Transfer Vehicle Flight
Japanese: 1 H-II Transfer Vehicle Flight
Shuttle-based: 28 Spacewalks
ISS-based: 108 Spacewalks
Total Time: More than 849 Hours
Weight: 2,722 kg (6,000 pounds) of supplies per Expedition
In-flight: 6 Crew Members
Ground: More than 100,000 Personnel
Contractors: 500 Facilities
Lines of Computer Code: 1.8 million (flight software); 3.3 million (ground support software).
The ISS will manage 20 times more signals than the Space Shuttle.
The International Space Station (ISS) has enought living and working space to easily accommodate six people. Thisprovides the international crew with an area greater than the size of a Boeing 747's passenger cabin. This is equivalent to the same size as the average spacing of a five-bedroom house and the station produces and uses the equivalent of ten American homes. The station is not only the biggest engineering project in peacetime history,
The space station involves seventeen nations, including Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and members of the European Space Agency (ESA). The space station required more than 40 launches from around the world to complete and involved thousands of hours of space walking time to complete this enormous project.
There will be more time logged on space walks than all of the EVAs (extravehicular activity) since the beginning of space flight; almost one and half times as many. The ISS will be so large that it will span the size of a football field. This will allow Earthlings to have a great chance to get a glimpse of the station in the night's sky, while it is cruising at a steady pace of 17,500 miles per hour (28,163 km) above its home planet.
Since the ISS is so massive, it would collapse under its own weight if it were constructed here on earth, with a combined weight of 520 tons.
The station is estimated to have a price tag of $40 billion. The United States has paid over $21.9 billion for its share and long-term estimates show the station will cost $98 billion to the United States over a fifteen year period. Prices on behalf of the United States might also increase as the world community continues to face an economic crisis, which is overflowing and effecting participation on the station.
The ISS also has the unique role of playing a major role in international politics, and retirement of the space shuttle program has only complicated matters. The station, which is used as a cooperation project, arose after the Cold War and is being used as a way to foster international goodwill on a worldly scale. This project, for example, is being used to keep Russian scientists busy on a good cause, instead of feeding countries like Iran and North Korea with nuclear weapon program technologies.
The station was designed to cut the costs of space exploration, but due to recent figures, this is very questionable to many people involved with the project. The partners of the ISS envision that the station will usher in a new space age in which, mankind will move one more step closer to leaving our home planet and return man to the moon or possibly Mars. The chief goals of the International Space Station consist of long-term space travel, commercial development, medical research, and environmental research. The main purpose is to bring together the various countries of the world and focus them on a common goal of studying the long-term effects of space travel on humans. These studies are meant to pave the way for future missions, including a trip to our nearest neighboring planet, Mars, and beyond. Another key of the station is to study the effects of micro gravity on plants and animals and to use this data to determine better seeds and crops and various types of other products that can be used directly on Earth. A third point is to study medical aliments in hopes to finding a cure for cancer to the possiblity of making synthetic bone and artificial tissues. And finally, the International Space Station will be used to monitor the green and blue planet from space, which will allow researchers to investigate everything from natural phenomena, such as El Nino and La Nina, to tracking hurricanes and global warming.
The project was broken down into three phases and are as follows: 1) Involving the occupation of U.S. astronauts aboard the Russian Mir space station, which includes dockings with Mir, the building of a joint space experience between the two nations, and the performance of scientific research. 2) This stage involves the building of the ISS, in orbit, to the point of housing a permanent three person crew. This phase ended when the U.S. laboratory module, named Destiny, was successfully mated to the space station 3) The final phase consists of developing the space station to the point where the ISS we be able to contain six people at one time and have all the scientific and research facilities connected and available.
The ISS will follow the foot steps of its predecessors, such as the Mir space station, to bridge all the nations of the world together in the name of science and the betterment of all mankind.
|Module||Assembly Mission||Launch Date||Launch System||Nation|
|Zarya (FGB)||1A/R||20 November 1998||Proton-K||Russia (Builder), United States of America (Financier)|
|Unity (Node 1)||2A||4 December 1998||Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-88)||United States of America|
|Zvezda (Service Module)||1R||12 July 2000||Proton-K||Russia|
|Destiny (Laboratory)||5A||7 February 2001||Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-98)||United States of America|
|Quest (Joint Airlock)||7A||12 July 2001||Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-104)||United States of America|
|Pirs (Docking Port)||4R||14 September 2001||Soyuz-U/Progress (M-SO1)||Russia|
|Harmony (Node 2)||10A||23 October 2007||Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-120)||Europe (Builder), United States of America (Operator)|
|Columbus (Laboratory)||1E||7 February 2008||Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-122)||Europe|
|Kibo Experiment Logistics Module (JEM-ELM)||1J/A||11 March 2008||Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-123)||Japan|
|Kibo Pressurized Module (JEM-PM)||1J||31 May 2008||Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124)||Japan|
|Poisk (Mini Research Module 2)||5R||10 November 2009||Soyus-U/Progress (M-MRM2)||Russia|
|Tranquillity (Node 3)||20A||8 February 2010||Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-130)||Europe (Builder), United States of America (Operator)|
|Cupola||20A||8 February 2010||Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-130)||Europe (Builder), United States of America (Operator)|
|Rassvet||ULF4||14 May 2010||Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-132)||Russia|
|Leonardo||ULF5||24 February 2011||Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-133)||Italy, (Builder), United States of America (Financier)|